Financial strain not only affects a person’s mental health but also takes a toll on their overall well-being. A recent study conducted by scientists at University College London (UCL) and Kings College in the UK reveals a strong connection between stress over money and long-term changes in key health markers. This nationally representative study, which included nearly 5,000 adults over the age of 50, is the first of its kind to explore how different types of chronic stress impact markers of health in older cohorts.
The Riskiest Health Profiles
Out of the six stressors examined in this study – financial strain, caregiving, disability, bereavement, illness, and divorce – it was found that financial strain was associated with the riskiest health profiles in the long run. To establish these risk profiles, the researchers analyzed four biomarkers in the blood: cortisol, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and insulin-growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Cortisol is a hormone produced in response to stress, while CRP and fibrinogen are immune players that respond to inflammation. IGF-1 is linked to aging and longevity.
Participants in the study who reported experiencing general stress were 61 percent more likely to belong to the high-risk category at a four-year follow-up. However, individuals who specifically mentioned financial stress were nearly 60 percent more likely to display a high-risk profile four years later. The likelihood of belonging to the high-risk category increased by 19 percent with each additional stressor, such as divorce. Notably, these associations were observed regardless of genetics, socioeconomics, age, sex, or lifestyle factors.
The Detrimental Effects of Financial Stress
Financial stress was found to be particularly detrimental to biological health. This could be attributed to the fact that this form of stress permeates various aspects of life, leading to family conflict, social exclusion, and even hunger or homelessness. While the study does not definitively prove that stress directly causes long-term health issues, it strongly suggests that stress has a significant impact on the aging body. Moreover, certain types of stress may have more pronounced physical effects than others.
Acute stress triggers hormonal changes in the body, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rates. The immune system responds by producing more pro-inflammatory molecules. When stress becomes chronic, it can lead to prolonged immune activation, potentially worsening both physical and mental illnesses. A disruption in the biological exchange between the immune and neuroendocrine systems due to chronic stress can pave the way for disease development.
The study identified financial stress, bereavement, and longstanding illness as the stressors with the most significant long-term changes in immune and neuroendocrine biomarkers. This confirms that chronic stress has a lasting physical impact on the body. However, it is important to acknowledge that the analysis was limited to four biomarkers and may not fully capture the complexity of human health.
While the study shed light on the impact of financial strain on health, it also revealed an interesting finding related to alcohol consumption. Higher alcohol consumption, defined as more than three drinks a week, was associated with a lower risk profile. This could be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of alcohol. However, it is crucial to note that increasing alcohol consumption is not a recommended solution for overall human health.
It is important to consider the limitations of the study. The vast majority of participants were from the White ethnicity, which restricts the generalizability of the findings to other ethnic groups that may experience higher levels of stress. Moreover, relying solely on biomarkers has certain limitations when studying human health holistically.
Despite these limitations, the research team at UCL emphasizes the significance of the immune and neuroendocrine response to stress as an important target for clinical intervention. Understanding the impact of stress on health markers can aid in the development of preventive strategies and interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of chronic stress on overall well-being.
Financial strain has been found to have a substantial impact on long-term health markers. This study has shed light on the connection between financial stress and changes in the immune and neuroendocrine systems. While further research is necessary to establish conclusive evidence, the findings highlight the significance of addressing financial strain as part of a comprehensive approach to promote better health outcomes.