In recent years, there has been a growing consensus among scientists that our planet is likely to surpass the 1.5℃ warming threshold. This has raised concerns about the potential irreversible changes that may occur as a result of exceeding emissions targets, a phenomenon known as a climate overshoot. These changes include sea-level rise, ecosystem disruption, species extinction, and loss of glaciers and permafrost. While these impacts are already being observed, our understanding of their long-term implications for the world’s oceans remains limited.
A recent study published in Communications Earth & Environment sought to investigate the consequences of a climate overshoot specifically on the oceans. The researchers utilized simulations with Earth system models as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) to explore the combined effects of changes in water temperatures and oxygen levels. It is well-known that warmer water can hold less dissolved oxygen, which contributes to deoxygenation. The study found that these changes in ocean temperature and deoxygenation would lead to a decrease in viable ocean habitats for centuries, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) levels have peaked and declined.
To assess the long-term viability of marine ecosystems, the researchers used a metabolic index, which measures the energy balance of individual organisms. In order for ecosystems to thrive, the supply of oxygen needs to exceed their demand. Under global warming, there has been an increase in metabolic demand and a reduction in oxygen supply due to deoxygenation. This has already led to a decrease in viable habitats for marine species. The study predicts that this trend will continue and intensify in the event of a climate overshoot, posing a significant threat to marine biodiversity and ecosystem stability.
The decrease in viable ocean habitats has direct implications for species distribution and fishing grounds. For example, species like tuna, which rely on well-oxygenated surface waters, will be forced to inhabit shallower depths for extended periods of time. This compression of their habitat towards the surface will have significant ramifications for fisheries that depend on these species. It is crucial for resource managers and fishing industries to understand and adapt to these changes to ensure the continued sustainability of their operations.
The study highlights the importance of considering both temperature and deoxygenation when evaluating the impacts of global warming on marine ecosystems. The combination of these factors can harm marine habitats for centuries, even after global temperatures have peaked. This emphasizes the need for proactive resource management and urgent action to reduce emissions and prevent a significant climate overshoot. Failure to do so would result in irreversible consequences for species abundance, food security, and the overall health of ocean ecosystems.
To mitigate the potential long-term impacts of a climate overshoot, it is crucial to drastically reduce emissions and strive for net-zero emissions by mid-century. This requires global cooperation and concerted efforts to transition to renewable energy sources and implement sustainable practices. Every effort should be made to stay below the temperature targets of the Paris Agreement and prevent a significant climate overshoot. It is important to note that our understanding of these future changes relies heavily on Earth system models, which need to be continually improved and validated through sustained observations.
The implications of a climate overshoot on ocean habitats are far-reaching and warrant immediate action. The long-lasting effects of changes in water temperatures and deoxygenation pose significant threats to marine biodiversity, fisheries, and overall ecosystem health. It is crucial for policymakers, scientists, and industries to collaborate in order to minimize the long-term impacts of a climate overshoot and ensure the well-being and sustainability of our oceans for future generations.