The race to develop quantum computers has intensified in recent years, with significant progress made in gate-based quantum computers. However, the Optical Quantum Computing Research Team at the RIKEN Center for Quantum Computing has taken a different approach. They have been focusing on measurement-based quantum computing, which utilizes cluster states and entanglement to process information. This alternative approach offers several advantages and could potentially make optical quantum computers more scalable than gate-based ones.
Measurement-based quantum computers operate using a complex quantum state called a cluster state. This state consists of linked qubits, or quantum bits, which are entangled. Entanglement allows the properties of these qubits to remain connected, even when separated by large distances. In measurement-based quantum computing, a measurement is made on the first qubit in the cluster state. The result of this measurement determines the subsequent measurements on the entangled qubits, a process known as feedforward. Through a series of measurements, any quantum gate or circuit can be implemented. This method is particularly efficient in optical quantum computers, as entangling a large number of quantum states is relatively straightforward in an optical system.
Compared to gate-based quantum computers, measurement-based quantum computing offers several advantages. In gate-based systems, qubits need to be precisely fabricated and connected to each other physically, which can be challenging. In contrast, measurement-based quantum computers do not require such precise fabrication and connectivity. These issues are automatically resolved in optical systems, making measurement-based quantum computers more scalable. Additionally, measurement-based quantum computation allows for programmability in optical systems. By changing the measurement, the operation can be altered without the need to modify the hardware, as is required in gate-based systems.
A recent breakthrough by the Optical Quantum Computing Research Team and their collaborators has demonstrated the implementation of nonlinear feedforward in measurement-based quantum computing. Nonlinear feedforward is necessary to realize the full range of potential gates in optics-based quantum computers. The team achieved this by utilizing complex optics, special electro-optic materials, and ultrafast electronics. They employed digital memories to precompute and record the desired nonlinear functions. This breakthrough overcomes practical difficulties in implementing nonlinear feedforward and opens up new possibilities for advanced gate operations in optical quantum computers.
The introduction of nonlinear feedforward offers two key advantages in measurement-based quantum computing. Firstly, it significantly enhances the speed of the process, ensuring that the output is synchronized with the optical quantum state. This increased speed is crucial for high-speed optical quantum computation. Secondly, nonlinear feedforward provides flexibility in implementing complex processing for the optical signal. While linear feedforward involves amplifying or attenuating the signal, nonlinear feedforward allows for more complex operations. These advantages make nonlinear feedforward a promising technique for advancing measurement-based quantum computing.
Despite the popularity of superconducting circuit-based approaches in quantum computing, optical systems show promising potential as quantum computer hardware. Optical quantum computers use qubits made of wave packets of light and offer advantages in terms of scalability and programmability. The recent advancements in measurement-based quantum computing, specifically the implementation of nonlinear feedforward, further highlight the promise of optical systems. The ability to apply nonlinear feedforward to real-world quantum computation and quantum error correction opens up exciting possibilities for the future of optical quantum computers.
The Optical Quantum Computing Research Team’s breakthrough in implementing nonlinear feedforward in measurement-based quantum computing represents an important step forward in the field. This advancement overcomes practical challenges and offers speed and flexibility in quantum operations. While gate-based quantum computers have dominated the race to develop quantum technologies, the potential of optical quantum computers should not be overlooked. Measurement-based quantum computing, harnessing the power of entanglement and cluster states, holds great promise for the future of quantum computation. With further developments in measurement-based quantum computing and advancements in optical systems, the dream of practical quantum computing may soon become a reality.